# How to Calculate National Income with the Expenditure Method?

Under national income accounting, we have seen the first two method:

- Value-added method,
- Income method, now we will understand the third and final method for the calculation of GDP, which is the expenditure method. We will see the formulas required to calculate national income with the expenditure method and will understand- How to Calculate National Income with the Expenditure Method? I will also share tips for solving the questions related to this method. But make sure you have revised the first two methods thoroughly before jumping into this. Let’s learn.

## Formulas of The Expenditure Method in National Income

Let’s have a look at all the formulas used under this method:

Don’t worry about the length of the formulas. It’s really easy if you follow the basic steps:

1. **With the expenditure method, we calculate GDPmp just like in the value-added method we get the same national income aggregate. But with the Income method, we find NDPfc.**

2. **Under the expenditure method, GDPmp = Private final consumption expenditure (P)+ Government final consumption expenditure (G)+ Gross domestic capital formation (K)+ net exports (X). In short, it includes expenses of the private sector, expenses of the government sector, the amount of the capital generated in a country domestically, and the amount raised from selling goods abroad. **

3. **Net exports are export minus imports, or negative net imports.**

4. **Depreciation formulas you call recall from the conversion list, it is gross minus net. **

5. **Now focus on the box formulas, GDCF stands for Gross domestic capital formation. It has two important formulas which are, GDCF = Gross domestic fixed capital formation (if has given) plus the change in stock, or, GDCF = Net domestic capital formation plus depreciation. **

6. **Sometimes in question, we have to calculate Gross domestic Fixed capital formation by adding Net domestic fixed capital formation and depreciation. **

**It’s okay, if you didn’t comprehend the GDCF part, we will understand it while we practice numerical on GDCF.**

**Make sure you have written, printed, or downloaded this formula list. Trust me, you will not find these formulas easily in any book or on the net. 😎**

## Numerical on The Expenditure Method

Question 1. Calculate ‘National Income’ from the expenditure method:

Particulars | Amount |
---|---|

Net Indirect Taxes | 5 |

Net Fixed Capital Formation | 100 |

Government Final Consumption Expenditure | 200 |

Net Imports | -20 |

Net current transfers from abroad | 15 |

Private Final Consumption Expenditure | 600 |

Net Factor Income from Abroad | 5 |

Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation | 125 |

Change in Stock | 10 |

Solution.

National Income means the question is asking us to find NNPfc, but with the expenditure method, we get GDPmp. So, find GDPmp first and then apply the basic conversion method.

GDPmp = Private Final Consumption Expenditure + Government Final Consumption Expenditure + Gross Domestic Capital Formation + Net Exports

First, fill in the above formula, whatever information you have from the question:

**GDPmp = 600 + 200 + 135* + 20*** **= 955** (Follow the explanation below)

Gross Domestic Capital Formation = Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation + Change in Stock

GDCF = 125 + 10 = 135 *

*Net Exports = – Net Imports

*Net Exports = – (-20) = 20

Now, we will calculate NNPfc = GDPmp – Net Indirect Taxes +NFIA – Depreciation

Calculate depreciation

Depreciation= Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation – Net Fixed Capital Formation

Depreciation = 125 – 100 = 25

NNPfc = GDPmp – Net Indirect Taxes + NFIA – Depreciation

**NNPfc = 955 – 5 +5 – 25 = 930**

Question 2. From the following data, calculate GNPmp by Income method and Expenditure Method:

Particulars | Amount |
---|---|

Mixed-income of self-employed | 400 |

Compensation of employees | 500 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 900 |

NFIA | (-)20 |

Net indirect taxes | 100 |

Consumption of fixed capital | 120 |

Net domestic capital formation | 280 |

Net exports | (-)30 |

Profits | 350 |

Rent | 100 |

Interest | 150 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 450 |

Solution. Let’s start with Income method first

NDPfc = Compensation of Employees + Operating Surplus + Mixed-Income of Self-employed

**NDPfc = 500 + 600*🤷♂️ + 400 = 1500**

🤷♀️Operating Surplus* = R+ R+ I+ P

Operating Surplus = 100 + 0 + 150 + 350 = 600

In the question, we are asked to calculate GNPmp, which we can find by the basic conversion method.

GNPmp = NDPfc + NIT + NFIA + Depreciation

**GNPmp = 1500 + 100 + (-20) + 120 = 1700**

Consumption of fixed capital and depreciation are the same things.

Now, we use the Expenditure method to find GNPmp:

GDPmp = PFCE + GFCE +GDCF +NX

**GDPmp = 900 + 450 + 400* + (-30) = 1720**

GDCF* = Net domestic capital formation + Depreciation = 280 + 120 = 400

According to the question, we have to calculate GNPmp by using the basic conversion method

GNPmp = GDPmp + NFIA

**GNPmp = 1720 + (-20) = 1700**

Hence, you can observe that whether you find from the income method or the expenditure method, the answer for the GNPmp is the same as 1700.

This tip you can use, you cross verify in your exams whether you are attempting the question correctly or not. Now, time to test yourself.

## Test Yourself

Question 1. Calculate ‘National Income’ from the following data:

Particulars | Amount |
---|---|

Net Indirect Taxes | 5 |

Net fixed domestic capital formation | 100 |

Net imports | (-)20 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 200 |

Net current transfers from abroad | 15 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 600 |

Change in stock | 10 |

NFIA | 5 |

Gross domestic fixed capital formation | 125 |

Question 2. From the following data, calculate National income by Income method and Expenditure method:

Particulars | Amount |
---|---|

Change in stock | 50 |

Compensation of employees | 1900 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 2000 |

NFIA | (-)20 |

Net indirect taxes | 400 |

Consumption of fixed capital | 100 |

Net capital formation | 400 |

Net exports | 20 |

Operating surplus | 720 |

Rent | 200 |

Interest | 150 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 600 |

Employer contribution to social security schemes | 100 |

Question 3. Calculate “National income” from the following :

Items | Particulars |
---|---|

Net imports | 60 |

Net current transfers to abroad | (-)10 |

Net domestic fixed capital formation | 300 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 200 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 700 |

Consumption of fixed capital | 70 |

Net change in stocks | 30 |

Net factor income to abroad | 20 |

Net indirect tax | 100 |

Question 4. Calculate ‘Net Domestic Product at Factor cost”:

Items | Particulars |
---|---|

Net current transfer to aboard | 15 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 800 |

Net Imports | (-)20 |

Net domestic capital formation | 100 |

Net factor income to abroad | 10 |

Depreciation | 50 |

Change in stock | 17 |

Net indirect tax | 120 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 200 |

Exports | 30 |

Question 5. Calculate “ Net National Product at market price”:

Items | Amount |
---|---|

Transfer payments by the government | 7 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 50 |

Net imports | (-)10 |

Net domestic fixed capital formation | 60 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 300 |

Private income | 280 |

Net factor income to abroad | (-)5 |

Closing stock | 8 |

Opening stock | 8 |

Depreciation | 12 |

Corporate tax | 60 |

Retained earnings of corporations | 20 |

Question 6. Calculate ‘Net domestic Product at market price”:

Items | Amount |
---|---|

Private final consumption expenditure | 400 |

Opening stock | 10 |

Consumption of fixed capital | 25 |

Imports | 15 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 90 |

Net current transfers to ROW | 5 |

Gross domestic fixed capital formation | 80 |

Closing stock | 20 |

Exports | 10 |

Net factor income to abroad | (-)5 |

Question 7. Calculate National Income:

Items | Amount |
---|---|

Net Imports | 5 |

Net domestic capital formation | 15 |

Personal income | 90 |

National debt interest | 10 |

Corporate tax | 25 |

Government final consumption expenditure | 20 |

Net factor income to abroad | (-) 5 |

Net indirect tax | 10 |

Undistributed profits | 0 |

Private final consumption expenditure | 100 |

Try solving at least 1 of them, share your solution. I will check it and tell you the correct one. You know, where to drop your solved solution. Its Contact@LearnWithAnjali.com

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