Development – Economics
Development – Economics, is a part of Class X, CBSE. Important intext questions with NCERT questions.
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In-text questions (Page no 3-7)
Q1. Describe any three possible development goals of landless rural labourers.
Ans. The following can be the developmental goals of landless rural laborers:
- More days of work with better wages.
- Social and economic equality.
- Low price food grains.
- Better education facilities for their children.
Q2. “What may be development for one may not be development for other.” Comment.
Ans. Yes, it is true that what may be called development for some may turn out to be destruction for others because of the following reasons:
- For example, a girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother, and that he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.
- To get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams but this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people like tribals.
Q3. Besides, income what are the other things people may look for growth and development?
Ans. The following are the other things people may look for growth and development, besides income:
- Equal treatment.
(Page no 8-11)
Q4. How can we compare different countries or states?
Ans. We can compare different countries or states on the following basis:
- Average income or per capita income.
- Literacy rate
- Life expectancy ratio
- Infant mortality rate
- Net attendance ratio
- Define average income.
Ans. Average income is the total income of the country divided by the total population. The average income is also called per capita income.
Q5. Average income is important but it has limitations while using it. Explain. (NCERT)
Ans. The following are the limitations while using average income:
- It ignores equitable distribution of income.
- It does not reflect the standard of living of the people.
Q6. Define infant mortality rate.
Ans. Infant mortality rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 100 live children born in that particular year.
Q7. Define literacy rate.
Ans. The literacy rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Q8. Define net attendance ratio.
Ans. Net attendance ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
Q9. “Money cannot buy all goods and services that one needs to live well.” Do you agree with this statement? Justify.
Ans. Yes, we agree with the statement that money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well because of the following reasons:
- The non- material things like freedom, security and respect cannot be bought with money.
- We cannot buy pollution free environment, unadulterated medicines and peace with money.
Q10. Why Kerala has a low IMR?
Ans. Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate because it has the adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
Q11. Define life expectancy.
Ans. Life expectancy refers to the average period that a person may expect to live.
Q12. What is Human Development Index?
Ans. HDI is a tool used to measure a country’s overall achievement in its social and economic dimensions.
Q13. What are the indicators of Human development Index?
Ans. Human Development Index comprises of the following indicators:
- Life expectancy
- Literacy rate
- Per capita income
Q14. Define national income.
Ans. National income is the total value of a country’s final goods and services produced in a financial year.
(Page no 14- 16)
Q15. What is sustainable development?
Ans. Sustainable development means a development in a manner that satisfies the demands of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Q1. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans. World Bank uses the per capita income of the country as the principal criterion for classifying the countries as rich or poor. Per capita income is the average income of the people of a country in a given year.
The following are the limitations of this criterion:
- World Bank does not give equal importance to other factors such as literacy rates and general health standards of the people which plays an important role in defining the quality of life.
- The per capita income does not reflect information about the unequal distribution of income among the people.
- Classification by income does not necessarily display the development status because economies in one group do not experience similar level of development.
Q2. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
- The criterion used by World Bank is different from UNDP. It is because the World Bank measures the development based only on per capita income.
- While the UNDP’s Human Development Report measures the development in terms of per capita income, literacy rates and general health standards of the people.
Q3. Why do we use averages?
Ans. We use averages because order to classify the countries only based on their total income would not be appropriate as different countries have different populations.
Q4. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans. Yes, I agree that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states.
- Money cannot buy all the goods and services that we need to live well.
- For example, money cannot buy pollution free environment.
- Income does not give goods and services that citizen use.
- If we compare other factors of Kerala with Maharashtra, we find that Kerala has better literacy rate, infant mortality rate, net attendance ratio etc.
Q5. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans. The issue of sustainable development is important due to the following reasons:
- It cares for the needs of future generation.
- It promotes an efficient use of natural resources.
- It lays emphasis on the quality of life.
Q6. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
- It is true because a person may exploit the natural resources.
- It would damage the environment.
- In such a situation if no resources are available, no development would take place in a country.
- So, it is necessary to use resources very carefully and adopt a strategy of a economic development which is environment friendly.
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